FLORA MALAYSIANA Ver 4.0

Plants of the Malaysian Region

Taxonomy:
eudicotyledonous plants; (eudicots) APG III (2009).
Eudicots and Eudicotyledons are botanical terms introduced by Doyle & Hotton (1991) to refer to a monophyletic group of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-Magnoliid dicots by previous authors. It is one of the two major types of flowering plants (angiosperms), characterized by possession of three apertures in their pollen; the other major type is magnoliids. Although this difference in pollen development and form has been known for a long time, it has become clear, as a result of several studies of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences, that this difference is very significant. The high degree of coincidence of the genetic data with this pollen distinction means that it is more important to recognize this distinction than the number of seed leaves, as previously thought. The term means, literally, "true dicotyledons" as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicotyledons and have typical dicotyledonous characters.
old - Dicotyledonous Plants, A.L. de Jussieu (1789)
Plants with seeds having two cotyledons
class Magnoliopsida: Seeds that have two cotyledons
Taxonomy:
Domain: Eukaryota, Whittaker & Margulis, 1978, (eukaryotes); Kingdom: Plantae Haeckel, 1866, (plants), Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae Cavalier-Smith, 1981, (green plants); Sub-subkingdom: T racheobionta, (vascular plants), Superdivision: Spermatophyta/Spermatophytina (auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998, (seed plants), Division/Phylum: Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takhtajan & W. Zimmermann, 1966, (flowering plants), Infraphylum: Angiospermae auct, Class: Magnoliopsida Brongniart, 1843, (dicotyledons),

Apetalae Plants, A.L. de Jussieu (1789)
Flowers that are without petals. An artificial early taxinomy grouping. Now all members of this group has been redistributed to other orders since the use of DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid) in identifying plant family relationship. Examples of families that used to belong to this group are:-


AMARANTHACEAE
Amarantha Family
Keluarga Bayam
MORACEAE
Mulberry Family
Keluarga Besaram


Taxonomy:
Core Eudicots are a monophyletic group. A second study has suggested that the core eudicots can be divided into two clades - Pentapetalae - comprising all core eudicots except Gunnerales - and Gunnerales. Pentapetalae can be then divided into three clades:
(i) a "superrosid" clade consisting of Rosidae, Vitaceae and Saxifragales
(ii) a "superasterid" clade consisting of Berberidopsidales, Santalales, Caryophyllales and Asteridae
(iii) Dilleniaceae
Within the core eudicots, the largest groups are the "rosids" (core group with the prefix "eu−rosids") and the "asterids" (core group with the prefix "eu−asterids").

Asterids; APG III (2009), APG II system (2003).
In the classification of flowering plants, the name asterids refers to a clade (a monophyletic group). Most of the taxa belonging to this clade had been referred to the Asteridae in the Cronquist system (1981) and to the Sympetalae in earlier systems. The name asterids (plural, not necessarily capitalized) is presumably inspired by the earlier botanical name but in itself is intended to be the name of a clade rather than a formal ranked name, in the sense of the International Code of Nomenclature, (ICBN).
old - Sympetalae Plants, = Monopetalae A.L. de Jussieu (1789)
Flowers with tube-liked petals


clade euasterids I

Order: Gentianales Lindley, Gentian, old = Apocynales, Bromhead, 1838, Apocynas,

APOCYNACEAE
Buttercup Family
Keluarga Alamanda
ASCLEPIADACEAE
Milkweed Family
Keluarga Bunga Emas

note: APG II, puts Asclepiadaceae as subfamily
Asclepiadoideae of Apocynaceae (Bruyns 2000)
LOGANIACEAE
Tembusu Family
Keluarga Tembusu

note: APG II (2003) places this in Gentianaceae
RUBIACEAE
Ixora Family
Keluarga Santan, Jarum-jarum


Order: Lamiales Bromhead, Jasmine

ACANTHACEAE
Acanthus Family
Keluarga Acanthus.
BIGNONIACEAE
Bignonia Family
Keluarga Bunga Loceng.
BORAGINACEAE
Boragina Family
Keluarga Geiger.
GESNERIACEAE
Gesneria Family
Keluarga Krisotemis.
LAMIACEAE
old = LABIATAE (Juss. 1789)
Mint Family
Keluarga Pudina.
LENTIBULARIACEAE
Bladderwort Family
Keluarga Rumput Ekor Kucing.
OLEACEAE
Jasmine Family
Keluarga Melor.
VERBENACEAE
Lantana Family
Keluarga Lantana.


Order: Solanales Dumortier, 1829. , Brinjals, 茄目

CONVOLVULACEAE
Morning Glory, Sweet Potato Family
Keluarga Seri Pagi
SOLANACEAE
Brinjal Family
Keluarga Terong

clade euasterids II

Order: Apiales, Nakai, Pennywort, Pegaga

APIACEAE, old = UMBELLIFERAE
Pennywort Family
Keluarga Pegaga
ARALIACEAE,
Umbrella Tree Family
Keluarga Pokok Payung


Order: Asterales Lindl. (1833), Asters, old = Campanulales Cronquist.

ASTERACEAE
old = COMPOSITAE, (Paul Dietrich Giseke, 1792)
Aster, Sunflower Family
Keluarga Bunga Matahari


Order: Dipsacales Dumort. (1829), Elder

ADOXACEAE
Old = CAPRIFOLIACEAE (Juss. 1789)
Elder Family
Keluarga Kerak Nasi

other asterids

Order: Ericales Dumort. 1829, Erics

BALSAMINACEAE
Balsam Family
Keluarga Bunga Keembong
ERICACEAE
Rhododendron Family
Keluarga Rhododendtum
LECYTHIDACEAE
Cannon Ball Family
Keluarga Peluru Mariam




Rosids; APG III (2009).
The name "rosids" is based upon the name "Rosidae", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. Armen Takhtajan, (1967), showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling, (1830). The rosids and Saxifragales form a clade, which is one of six groups that compose the Pentapetalae: old - Polypetalae Plants, A.L. de Jussieu (1789)
Flowers with individual petals


clade eurosids I

Order: Cucurbitales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl, Cucumbers

CUCURBITACEAE
Cucumber Family
Keluarga Timun

Order: Fabales, Bromhead. Legumes

FABACEAE
Bean Family
Keluarga Kekacang

Order: Malpighiales, Martius. Euphorbia

CLUSIACEAE
old = GUTTIFERAE Juss. 1789
Clusia Family
Keluarga Manggis
EUPHORBIACEAE
Euphobia Family
Keluarga Ubi Kayu
PHYLLANTHIACEAE
Phyllanthia Family
Keluarga Cemai

Order: Oxalidales Perleb, Bilimbi

OXALIACEAE
Belembi Family
Keluarga Belembing

Order: Rosales Perleb, Roses

MORACEAE
Mulberry Family
Keluarga Besaram
ROSACEAE
Rose Family
Keluarga Ros

clade eurosids II

Order: Brassicales, Bromhead, Syn = Capparales, Mustard

BRASSICACEAE
old = CRUCIFERAE Juss. 1789
Cabbage Family
Keluarga Kobis
CARICACEAE
Papaya Family
Keluarga Betik
CLEOMACEAE
Catwiskers Family
Keluarga Misal Kuching

Order: Malvales Dumort., 1829, Malva, Hibiscus

BOMBACACEAE
Duro Family,
Keluarga Durian
COCHLOSPERMACEAE
Buttercup Tree Family,
Keluarga Pokok Mentega

note: APG II, puts Cochlospermaceae as an option segregate
of Bixaceae (L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz {1992 onwards})
DIPTEROCARPACEAE
Diptrocarpus Family,
Keluarga Meranti
MALVACEAE
Hibiscus Family,
Keluarga Bunga Raya

Order: Sapindales Dumortier., Mangos

ANACARDIACEAE
Cashewnut Family
Keluarga Gajus
MELIACEAE
Neem Family
Keluarga Mambu

other rosids

Order: Myrtales Reichenbach, Mytas

COMBRETACEAE
Drunken Sailor Family
Keluarga Kuiskalis
LYTHRACEAE
Crape Myrtle Family
Keluarga Bungor
MELASTOMATACEAE
Melastoma Family
Keluarga Senduduk
MYRTACEAE
Guava Family
Keluarga Jambu
ONAGRACEAE
Willow Herb Family
Keluarga Jinaleh

Other Core Eudicots; APG III (2009).

Order: Caryophyllales Perleb, Amarantha, Juss. (1789)
AIZOACEAE
old = FICOIDACEAE
sea-purslanes Family
Keluarga Gelang Laut
AMARANTHACEAE
Amarantha Family
Keluarga Bayam
BASELLACEAE
Basella Family
Keluarga Remayong
CACTACEAE
Cactus Family
Keluarga Katus
NEPENTHACEAE
Note: Cronquist System puts NEPENTHACEAE
under a seperate Order Nepenthales Dumort. 1829.

Pitcher Family
Keluarga Periok Kera
NYCTAGINACEAE
Bougainvillea Family
Keluarga Bunga Kertas

Order: Gunnerales , Gunnera,

Order: Santalales , Santala,
LORANTHACEAE
Mistletoe Family
Keluarga Dedalu

Order: Saxifragales , Saxifraga,


Taxonomy:
Basal Eudicots is an informal name for a paraphyletic group. A group of taxa is said to be paraphyletic if the group consists of all the descendants of a hypothetical closest common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups of descendants (typically one such group). Paraphyletic groups are often erected on the basis of (sym)plesiomorphies (ancestral similarities) instead of (syn)apomorphies (derived similarities).

APG III (2009) identifies only two orders.
old - Polypetalae Plants, A.L. de Jussieu (1789)
Flowers with individual petals


Order: Buxales, , Buxa


Order: Trochodendrales, , Trochodendra


Taxonomy:
Other Eudicots is an informal name for the orders of plants related to the Eudicots Phylogeny, but outside the Core Eudicots and Basal Euicots. APG III (2009) identifies only two orders and one family without an order, within the Eudicots, while one order the Ceratophyllales is just outside the Eudocots Phylogeny. old - Polypetalae Plants, A.L. de Jussieu (1789). Flowers with individual petals


Order: Ceratophyllales, Ceratophylla


Order: Ranunculales, Ranuncula


Order: Proteales, Dumort. (1829) Lotus

NELUMBONACEAE
Lotus Family
Keluarga Teratai



Taxonomy:
paleodicotyledonous plants; (Magnoliid complex) APG III (2009).
paleodicots or paleodicotyledon are terms used in the APG II (2003) system, Paleodicots (sometimes spelled "palaeodicots") is an informal name used by botanists (Spichiger & Savolainen 1997, Leitch et al. 1998) to refer to angiosperms which are not monocots or eudicots. The APG III recognizes a clade within the angiosperms for the magnoliids. The clade includes most of the basal groups of the angiosperms. This clade was formally named Magnoliidae in 2007 under provisions of the PhyloCode. The Cronquist system (1981) used the name Magnoliidae for one of six subclasses (within class Magnoliopsida = dicotyledons). They are characterized by trimerous flowers, pollen with one pore, and usually branching-veined leaves.


Order: Canellales, Cronquist, Canella

Order: Laurales, Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl Laurals

LAURACEAE
Cinnamomum Family
Keluarga Kayu Manis

Order: Magnoliales, Bromhead (Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl) Magnolia

ANNONACEAE
Custard Apple Family
Keluarga Nona
MAGNOLIACEAE
Cempaka Family
Keluarga Cempaka
MYRISTICACEAE
Nutmeg Family
Keluarga Pala

Order: Piperales, Bercht. & J.Presl Pipers


Taxonomy:
anita grade plants; APG III (2009).
From early Angiosperms - woody; vessels absent, eustele; nodes; sieve tube plastids with starch grains; leaves simple, persistent, entire; flwer parts free, strobilar, perfect, Parts parts varying, often in threes, weakly differentiated, stamen with broad filaments, pollen monosulcate; G apocarpous (style short in most), nectaries absent; embryo very small; aromatic terpenoids


Order: Austrobaileyales, APG III, Austrobaileya

Order: Nymphaeales, APG III, Nymphaea

NYMPHAEACEAE
Waterlily Family
Keluarga Telipok

Order: Amborellales, APG III, Amborella