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ORGANIC VEGETABLES

OF MALAYSIA AND SOUTHERN THAILAND

(SAYUR-SAYURAN ORGANIK MALAYSIA DAN THAILAND SELATAN)



Chapter 06 - Glossary of Organic and Farming Terms
Bab 06 - Glosari Istilah Organik dan Pertanian


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X |Y | Z

Acre.
A unit of area, used in land measurement equal to 4,840 square yards, or 43,560 square feet- about the size of a football field.

Act. The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990.

Adapted. Behaviors and/or body structures that make a species well suited to survive in a particular environment.

Aerobic. With oxygen. In a compost, aerobic bacteria that require oxygen to carry out their life functions will produce a sweet, earthy smelling compost.

Aggregation. Clustering, as of soil particles, to form granules that aid in aeration and water penetration.

Agriculture. The science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock; farming or ranching.

Amend. To improve soil through the addition of various substances.

Anaerobic. Without oxygen. In a compost, anaerobic bacteria that live in the absence of oxygen will give off rotten smelling odors.

Bacteria. Single-celled or non-cellular organisms found in soil, water, air, organic matter, and in the bodies of plants and animals. Organic garden soil contains billions of bacteria that make the soil fertile by recycling nutrients from dead plants and animals and converting nitrogen in the air into a form that plants can absorb. Most bacteria are beneficial and do not cause disease.

Bale. A large package of raw or finished material tightly bound with twine or wire and often wrapped.

Bins.
Round, concrete or corrugated metal covered structures which are used to store grains. Some are equipped with fans to move the air through the grain to keep it in good condition. Some have fuel-fired burner which can be used to dry the moisture in grain down to proper storage levels.

Biodegradable.
Capable of being broken down into simpler components by living organisms.

Biological diversity (biodiversity). The variety of plant and animal species living in a specified geographical area.

Biological Control. Management of pests within reasonable limits by encouraging natural predator/prey relationships and avoiding use of toxic chemicals.

Biomass. That part of a given habitat consisting of living matter, expressed as weight of organisms per unit area.

Biopharming. Inserting genes into plants to make them manufacture drugs, vaccines, enzymes, antibodies, hormones or industrial chemicals such as plastics, detergents, and adhesives.

Brix mix. A fertilizer formulated to increase the brix (sugar content) of growing vegetables, trees and vines, flowers, herbs, and ornamental crops. By raising the brix levels in plants, a farmer can increase yields and reduce insect and fungus attacks. Maintaining a high brix level helps the crop deal with adverse climactic conditions that can cause stress and, thus, a lower yield. The brix scale, which represents the percentage of sugar by weight in a solution, was invented in the late 1800s by Austrian scientist Adolph F. Brix.

Bt. A toxin produced by a bacterium called "baccilus thuringiensis." This bacterium is a disease of caterpillars, but it is harmless to other insects and humans.

Buffer Zone. An area located between a certified production operation or portion of a production operation and an adjacent land area that is not maintained under organic management. A buffer zone must be sufficient in size or other features (e.g., windbreaks or a diversion ditch) to prevent the possibility of unintended contact by prohibited substances applied to adjacent land areas with an area that is part of a certified operation.

Bushel. A unit of volume or capacity, used in dry measure and equal to 4 pecks, 2,510.42 cubic inches, or 35.24 liters- about the size of a round laundry basket.

Byproduct. Something produced in the making of something else.

Certification or Certified. A determination made by a certifying agent that a production or handling operation is in compliance with the National Organics Act and the regulations in this part, which is documented by a certificate of organic operation.

Combine harvester. A machine principally used for harvesting wheat and often other grains. Came into wide use in the U.S. in the 1920ís and 30ís. Called a combine because it combines jobs previously done by other individual machines. It cuts the standing grain, threshes out the grain from the straw or chaff, cleans the grain, and discharges it into bags or grain reservoirs.

Commercial. Of, relating to, or being goods, often unrefined, produced and distributed in large quantities for use by industry.

Commingling. Physical contact between unpack aged organically produced and non organically produced agricultural products during production, processing, transportation, storing or handling, other than during the manufacture of a multi-ingredient product containing both types of ingredients.

Commodity. An article of trade or commerce, especially an agricultural or mining product that can be processed and resold.

Compaction. The process by which soil particles are pressed together, forcing air out and creating a dense soil where plant roots have trouble getting oxygen and growing through the soil. Usually caused by walking on or driving on soil.

Compost. The process of decomposing organic wastes such as table scraps, straw or manure for use as fertilizer. It is the product of a managed process through which microorganisms break down plant and animal materials into more available forms suitable for application to the soil. Compost must be produced through a process that combines plant and animal materials with an initial Can ration of between 25:1 and 40:1. Producers using an in-vessel or static aerated pile system must maintain the composting materials at a temperature between 131°F and 170°F for 3 days. Producers using a windrow system must maintain the composting materials at a temperature between 131°F and 170°F for 15 days, during which time, the materials must be turned a minimum of five times.

Crop. Cultivated plants or agricultural produce, such as grain, vegetables, or fruit, considered as a group which are grown and harvested or picked to eat or sell.

Crop Rotation. The practice of changing the type of crop grown in a particular filed from season to season. That is the practice of alternating the annual crops grown on a specific field in a planned pattern or sequence in successive crop years so that crops of the same species or family are not grown repeatedly without interruption on the same field.

Cultivation. The act of loosening or breaking up the soil-to prepare and use for the raising of crops. That is digging up or cutting the soil to prepare a seed bed; control weeds; aerate the soil; or work organic matter, crop residues, or fertilizers into the soil.

Cultural Methods. Methods used to enhance crop health and prevent weed, pest, or disease problems without the use of substances; examples include the selection of appropriate varieties and planting sites; proper timing and density of plantings; irrigation; and extending a growing season by manipulating the microclimate with green houses, cold frames, or wind breaks.

Custom harvester. An individual, a family, or a group of individuals whose business is to hire out to harvest crops for farmers. They provide the equipment such as combines, grain trucks, semi-tractor trailer trucks, grain carts and tractors to bring the mature crops in and to deliver them either to the farmerís storage facility or to a commercial facility such as a grain elevator.

Decomposers. Organisms that feed primarily on dead organic material, breaking it down into humus.

Detectable Residue. The amount or presence of chemical residue or sample component that can be reliably observed or found in the sample matrix by current approved analytical methodology.

Disease Vectors. Plants or animals that harbor or transmit disease organisms or pathogens which may attack crops or livestock.

Disk. A piece of farm equipment pulled behind a tractor to prepare soil. It is used in preparation of fields prior to planting and also to keep weeds under control.

Drift. The physical movement of prohibited substances from the intended target site onto an organic operation or portion thereof.

Drill. A piece of equipment for seeding that is pulled behind a tractor. The drill is used to plant wheat and other small seed crops. It makes a long groove in the soil, drops the seeds into it, and the covers and firms the soil above the seed.

Drought. A long period of abnormally low rainfall, especially one that adversely affects growing or living conditions.

Ecological imbalance. A lack of functional relationships among parts of an ecosystem.

Ecosystem. A system of relationships between organisms and their environments. That is the living things—and the physical environment in which they live—that form a complex, interconnected web of interactions and relationships.

Erosion. Soil movement through water and wind action. Or the wearing or washing away of soil through the movement of water, wind, glaciers, or animals.

Excluded Methods. A variety of methods used to genetically modify organisms or influence their growth and development by means that are not possible under natural conditions or processes and are not considered compatible with organic production. Such methods include cell fusion, microencapsulation and macroencapsulation, and recombinant DNA technology (including gene deletion, gene doubling, introducing a foreign gene, and changing the positions of genes when achieved by recombinant DNA technology). Such methods do not include the use of traditional breeding, conjugation, fermentation, hybridization, in vitro fertilization, or tissue culture.

Expenses. An expenditure of money; a cost.

Fertile. Soil that supports and maintains healthy and abundant plant growth.

Fertilizer. Any of a large number of natural and synthetic materials, including manure and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium compounds, spread on or worked into soil to increase its capacity to support plant growth. A single or blended substance containing one or more recognized plant nutrient(s) which is used primarily for its plant nutrient content and which is designed for use or claimed to have value in promoting plant growth.

Field. An area of land identified as a discrete unit within a production operation.
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Fumigant. (See pesticide)

Fungicide. (See pesticide)

Genetic Engineering (GE). IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements) definitition. Genetic engineering is a set of techniques from molecular biology (such as recombinant DNA) by which the genetic material of plants, animals, micro-organisms, cells and other biological units are altered in ways or with results that could not be obtained by methods of natural mating and reproduction or natural recombination. Techniques of genetic modification include, but are not limited to: recombinant DNA, cell fusion, micro and macro injection, encapsulation, gene deletion and doubling. Genetically engineered organisms do not include organisms resulting from techniques such as conjugation, transduction and natural hybridization.

Germination. The process of a seed becoming a plant.

GMO. A plant, animal, or microorganism that is transformed by genetic engineering.

A product that is the result of Genetic Engineering is called a “product of Genetic engineering” or a “derivative of GMOs” depending on the circumstances.

See Excluded Methods. Note: (GMOs are not allowed in organic products)
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Grain elevator. A commercial storage facility used for storing grain.

Grains. Members of the grass family cultivated primarily for their starchy seeds. Wheat, corn (maize), rye, oats, barley, sorghum, and some of the millets are common grains.

Harvest. The process of threshing or picking a grain crop by a large machine called a combine. It can also refer to picking vegetables and fruit crops by hand.

Hay. Product such as rice plants, alfalfa and certain grasses which are cut, baled and fed to animals.

Herbicide. (See pesticide).

Heirloom. An antique variety of a plant popular in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries, the seeds of which have been passed down from generation to generation.

Humus. The result of organic material being decomposed into a dark soil-like material that contains plant nutrients.

Hummus. A Middle Eastern food made from chick peas, lemon, and tahini. Usually served as a dip with vegetables, pita bread, or crackers.

Inert ingredient. Any substance (or group of substances with similar chemical structures if designated by the Environmental Protection Agency) other than an active ingredient which is intentionally included in any pesticide product.">

Ingredients statement. The list of ingredients contained in a product shown in their common and usual names in the descending order of predominance.

Insecticide. (See pesticide)

Inspector. Any person retained or used by a certifying agent to conduct inspections of certification applicants or certified production or handling operations.

Inspection. The act of examining and evaluating the production or handling operation of an applicant for certification or certified operation to determine compliance with the Act and the regulations in this part.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM). A system of pest management aimed at reducing agricultural losses caused by pests using methods that cause minimal environmental damage and little or no health risk.

Irradiation. Exposure to ionizing radiation. Food irradiation is a synthetic process that is not allowed in organic production.

Irrigation. The act of supplying with water by means of ditches, pipes or streams.

Larvae (plural); Larva (singular). The immature, wingless stage in the life of insects, after hatching from an egg but before metamorphosing into pupas or adults.

Livestock. Domestic animals, such as cattle or horses, raised for home use or for profit.

Lot. Any number of containers which contain an agricultural product of the same kind located in the same conveyance, warehouse, or packing house and which are available for inspection at the same time.
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Macroorganism. Organism large enough to see with the naked eye. (see microorganism)

Metabolite. A metabolite is any substance produced during metabolism of another substance. Also, a metabolite can refer to the end-product (what is remaining after metabolism) or a by-product of another compound. (ie. The compound dimethylthiophosphate is the metabolite (by-product) of the organophosphate Phosmet.)

Metabolize. The process by which chemical changes in cells convert food into energy, assimilate nutrients, and release waste products.

Metamorphosis. The process that insects go through in developing into adults. In complete metamorphosis, the cycle begins with an egg, followed by a wingless larva, followed by a resting pupa stage where the insect forms a cocoon and emerges as a very different looking, flying adult. In complete metamorphosis, an egg hatches into a wingless larva, which grows into a winged adult—closely resembling the larva.

Microbes. Very minute living things, whether plant or animal: bacteria protozoa, fungi, actinomycetes.

Microclimate. A localized area or habitat that has a uniform climate.

Microorganism. Organism requiring magnification for observation. (see macroorganism)

Mixed farming. The practice of growing crops and raising livestock on the same farm.

Monoculture. Cultivation of a single species.

Mulch. Any nonsynthetic material, such as wood chips, leaves, or straw, or any synthetic material included on the National List for such use, such as newspaper or plastic that serves to suppress weed growth, moderate soil temperature, or conserve soil moisture.

National List. A list of allowed and prohibited substances as provided for in the Act.

National Organic Program (NOP). The program authorized by the Act for the purpose of implementing its provisions.

National Organic Standards Board (NOSB). A board established by the Secretary under 7 U.S.C. 6518 to assist in the development of standards for substances to be used in organic production and to advise the Secretary on any other aspects of the implementation of the National Organic Program.

Nectar. A sweet substance produced inside a flower that attracts and acts as a food source for insects.

Nematodes. Small (usually microscopic) roundworms with both free-living and parasitic forms. Not all nematodes are pests.

Nitrates. A salt of nitric acid. Potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate used as fertilizers produces nitrates that, if in overabundance, can leach out of the soil into crops and into water supplies or adjacent streams.

Nonpoint Source Pollution (NPS). Nonpoint source pollution occurs when water runs over land or through the ground, picks up pollutants, and deposits them in surface waters (lakes, rivers, estuaries, coastal waters) or introduces them into groundwater.

Nonsynthetic (natural). A substance that is derived from mineral, plant, or animal matter and does not undergo a synthetic process as defined in section 6502(21) of the Act (7 U.S.C. 6502(21)). For the purposes of this part, nonsynthetic is used as a synonym for natural as the term is used in the Act.

Nontoxic. Not known to cause any adverse physiological effects in animals, plants, humans, or the environment.

Organic. A labeling term that refers to an agricultural product produced in accordance with the Act and the regulations in this part.

Organic farming. A farming technique that avoids all synthetic chemical inputs.

Organic matter. Any material that was recently living or produced by a living organism and is capable of being decomposed.

Organic production. A production system that is managed in accordance with the Act and regulations in this part to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.

Parasitizing. The process by which certain insects lay eggs inside or on the bodies of other insects. As the eggs hatch, the larvae feed on the host insect, eventually killing it.

Perennial. A plant that lives for more than two years and often many years. These plants usually develop woody trunks and stems.

Persistence. A substance's tendency to remain chemically active for a long time.
Persistent toxic chemicals. Detrimental materials that remain active for a long time after their application and can be found in the environment years, and even decades, after they were used.

Pesticide. A general term for chemicals used to destroy living things that people consider pests. More specific terms include the following: "Insecticide," a substance that kills insects. "Herbicide," a substance that kills plants/weeds. "Fungicide," a substance that kills fungi. "Fumigant," a substance that kills all organisms in the soil—a soil sterilizer. "Rodenticide," a substance that kills rodents.

pH. An expression for degree of acidity and alkalinity based upon the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. pH7 is neutral; less than 7 is acid; greater than 7 is alkaline.

Photosynthesis. The process by which green parts of plants are able to convert water and carbon dioxide molecules in to a sugar molecule, using light energy from the sun to break and rearrange the molecular bonds.

Planter. A piece of equipment for seeding that is pulled behind a tractor. The planter is used to seed coarser grain seeds such as corn, soybeans, and sunflowers.

Pollen. A mass of tiny spores appearing as a fine powdery substance found on flowers. Pollen grains contain the male reproductive cells of plants.

Pollinate. The action by which pollen from one flower is received by the stigma of another flower of the same species. Once a flower has been pollinated, the pollen grains travel down pollen tubes into the ovaries of the flower, where a fruit or seed case will develop.

Precautionary Principle. When an activity raises threats of harm to the environment or human health, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause-and-effect relationships are not fully established scientifically.

Predator. An animal that eats other animals.

Prey. An animal that is eaten by other animals.

Product. Something produced by human or mechanical effort or by a natural process.

Prohibited substance. A substance the use of which in any aspect of organic production or handling is prohibited or not provided for in the Act or the regulations of this part.
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Pupa. The resting stage in complete metamorphosis during which an insect creates a cocoon. The insect lives in this cocoon until it emerges as a winged adult.

rBGH. Recombinant bovine growth hormone: a synthetic growth hormone used to stimulate milk production in dairy cows. (Note: rBGH is not allowed in organic farming.)

Residue testing. An official or validated analytical procedure that detects, identifies, and measures the presence of chemical substances, their metabolites, or degradations products in or on raw or processed agricultural products.
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Resistance. The process of insects adapting to a pesticide over a period of time, making the pesticide less and less effective, and requiring larger and stronger applications of the pesticide to achieve the same result.

Rodenticide. (See pesticide)

Semolina. The gritty, coarse particles of wheat left after the finer flour has passed through the bolting machine, used for pasta.

Sewage sludge. A solid, semisolid, or liquid residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Sewage sludge includes but is not limited to: domestic septage; scum or solids removed in primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment processes; and a material derived from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge does not include ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator or grit and screenings generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. (Note: Sewage sludge is not allowed in organic farming.)

Soil health. The condition of the soil, including its ecosystems (minerals, nutrients, and microbial activity), pH, and structure.

Species. Basic category of biological classification, characterized by individuals that can breed together and produce offspring that can also produce young.

State organic program (SOP). A State program that meets the requirements of section 6506 of the Act, is approved by the Secretary, and is designed to ensure that a product that is sold or labeled as organically produced under the Act is produced and handled using organic methods.

Stigma. The top part of the pistil in flowers where pollen from another flower must land for the flower to become pollinated.

Straw. The stems of the wheat or oat plants which are cut and baled and often used for animal bedding. Sometimes, straw is fed to animals.

Synthetic. A substance that is formulated or manufactured by a chemical process or by a process that chemically changes a substance extracted from naturally occurring plant, animal, or mineral sources, except that such term shall not apply to substances created by naturally occurring biological processes.

Thinning. The process of removing some plants to provide room for the remaining plants to grow and develop.

Till. The cultivation or ploughing of land.

Tolerance. The maximum legal level of a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw or processed agricultural commodity or processed food.
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Transplant. A seedling which has been removed from its original place of production, transported, and replanted.
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Unavoidable residual environmental contamination (UREC). Background levels of naturally occurring or synthetic chemicals that are present in the soil or present in organically produced agricultural products that are below established tolerances.
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USDA. United States Department of Agriculture

Vermicast. A single worm casting or a quantity of worm castings. Worms "work" material by ingesting, excreting, and re-ingesting it. Vermicast is extensively worm-worked and re-worked. It may be overworked and has probably lost plant nutrients as compared vermicompost. Vermicast has a fine, smooth texture, which may dry with a crust on the surface. (See worm casting)

Vermicompost. Mixture of partially decomposed organic waste, bedding, and worm castings (excretions). Contains recognizable fragments of plant, food, or worm bedding material, as well as cocoons, worms, and associated organisms. As a verb "to carry out composting with worms."

Vermicomposting. The process of using worms and associated organisms to break down organic waste into material containing nutrients for plant growth.

Volunteer. A plant that has grown on its own, without humans intentionally planting it.

Wild crop. Any plant or portion of a plant that is collected or harvested from a site that is not maintained under cultivation or other agricultural management.

Worm castings. Undigested material, soil, bacteria deposited through the anus of a worm. Worm manure. (see vermicast)

Yield. An amount produced.


Inquiries    (Pertanyaan)
KLINTIENDHARM (THAN HSIANG) FOUNDATION
Soi Central Park,
Hatyai, Thailand

June 2003