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FLORA MALAYSIANA

PLANTS OF THE MALAYSIAN REGION

(TUMBUHAN DISEKITAR MALAYSIA)

Introduction (Pengenalan)

The Flora of Malaysia is rich and varied. Plants of a certain type are rearly confined to a small area. They do not recognise a country's boundaries. Thus plants of Malaysia may also be found in its neighbouring regions of Southern Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore. Because of the large varieties of Malaysian plants, only a very small selection of the plants can be given here.

Malaysia mempunyai kekayaan Flora yang beranika jenis. Sesejenis pokok biasanya tidak terhad kepada sesuatu kawasan kecil. Mereka tidak mengenal sempatan sesuatu negara. Oleh kerana ini tumbuhan Malaysia boleh didapati di kawasan jirannya iaitu Negeri Thai Selatan, Indonesia dan Singapura. Oleh sebab begitu banyaknya jenis tumbuhan di Malaysia, hanya sebahagian kecil tumbuhan tempatan dapat diberi di sini.


The wild spinach, a plant that can be found through out South East Asia.
Bayam duri, sejenis pokok yang boleh dijumpai di seluruh Asia Tenggala.


To be able to recognise and to name plants we need to know something about the external forms of their various parts. Plants as a whole can be divided into two main groups. One group is the flowering plants such as grasses, orchids, lantana and balsam. The second group is the non flowering plants such as conifers, ferns, mosses and fungi.

Untuk menengelkan dan menamakan tumbuhan, kita halus tahu sedikit bekenaan ciri-ciri luar bahagian-bahagian pokok itu. Semua tumbuhan boleh dibahagikan kepada dua kumpulan besar. Satu kumpulan adalah pokok-pokok berbunga seperti rumput, orkid, lantana dan keembong. Kumpulan kedua adalah tumbuhan tidak berbunga seperti pokok krismas, paku-pakis, lumut dan kulat.


The picture left, shows a fern plant.
Gambar di kiri, adalah pokok paku.


The flowering plants can again be divided into two main groups. One group is the monocotyledonous plants. The other groups are the dicotyledonous plants. Dicotyledonous plants usually have leaves with net liked veins, their seeds are made of two halves and they have tap roots (a large central root). Monocotyledonous plants usually have leaves with parallel veins, their seed is of a single seedleaf and they have fibrous roots (their roots are nearly of the same size). The non flowering plants can be divided into five main groups namely the gymnosperms, the ferns, the mosses, the fungi and mushrooms, and the algae and sea weeds.

Pokok berbunga sekali lagi boleh dibahagikan kepada dua kumpulan beasr. Satu kumpulan adalah pokok monokot. Kumpulan yang satu lagi adalah pokok dikot. Daun pokok dikot biasanya ada urat yang menjalar, bijinya adalah dua belah, dan mereka ada akar tunjang (akar besar). Daun pokok monokot biasanya ada urat yang selari, biji nya tidak dapat dibelahkan dan akarnya selari (lebihkurang sama besar). Tumbuhan tidak berbunga boleh dibahagikan kepada empat kumpulan utama seperti jimnospermae, paku-pakis, lumut, kulat dan cendawan serta algae dan rumput laut.

The picture shows a monocotyledonous flower.
Gambar menunjukkan bunga monokot.



The picture shows a dicotyledonous plant.
Gambar di kanan adalah pokok dikot.
Some examples of dicotyledonous plants are the Acanthia Family, Spinach family, Annona family, Allamanda family, Balsam family, Sun Flowers family, Cucumber family, Mint family, Bean family, Hibiscus family, Bougainvillea family, Passion flower family, Rose family, Ixora family, Lantana family etc. Some examples of monocotyledonous plants are the Onion family, Yam family, Pineapple family, Canna family, Grass family, Lily family, Banana family, Orchid family, Palm family, Pandanus family, Ginger family etc.

Contoh-contoh tumbuhan dikot adalah keluarga Akanthia, keluarga Bayam, keluarga Nona, keluarga Alamanda, keluarga Keembong, keluarga Bunga Matahari, keluarga Timun, keluarga Pudina, keluarga Kekacang, keluarga Bunga Raya, keluarga Bunga Kertas, keluarga Buah Susu, keluarga Ros, keluarga Jejarum, keluarga Lantana dll. Beberapa contoh tumbuhan monokot adalah keluarga Bawang, keluarga Keladi, keluarga Nanas, keluarga Kana, keluarga Rumput, keluarga Lili, keluarga Pisang, keluarga Orkid, keluarga Palma, keluarga Pandan, keluarga Helia dll.


For the purpose of study, plants may also be divided in a less scientific manner. Thus they can be divided into wild dicot plants, wild monocot plants and garden dicot plants and garden monocot plants. These plants may also be subdivided according to their size and growing habits such as trees, shrubs, herbacious plants; or characteristics such as aquatic dicot plants, aquatic monocot plants, climbing plants, fragrant dicot plants, fragrant monocot plants; or according to uses such as dicot spices, monocot spices, plants of medicinal value, fruit crops, vegetables, plants that can be eaten raw, and non flowering plants like gymnospem plants, ferns, fungi and mushroms, etc.

Untuk tujuan kajian, tumbuhan juga boleh dibahagikan dengan cara yang kurang saintifik. Demikian mereka boleh di bahagikan kepada tumbuhan dikot liar, tumbuhan monokot liar dan tumbuhan dikot taman, tumbuhan monokot taman. Tumbuhan-tumbuhan ini boleh juga dibahagikan lagi mengikut saiz dan cara mereka membiak seperti pohon, pokok renik, pokok herba; atau ciri-ciri utama seperti tumbuhan dikot air, tumbuhan monokot air, tumbuhan memanjat, tumbuhan dikot harum, tumbuhan monokot harum, atau mengikut kegunaannya seperti tumbuhan rumpah dikot, tumbuhan rumpah monokot, tumbuhan ubatan, pokok buah-buahan, sayur-sayuran, tunbuhan ulam, dan juga tumbuhan tidak berbunga seperti tumbuhan jimnospemae, paku pakis, kulat dan cendawan, dan lain-lain lagi.



The picture shows the flowers of a garden plant.
Gambar menunjukkan bunga pokok taman.


CONTENTS OF RESOURCE MATERIALS
(KANDUNGAN BAHAN SUMBER)

ALAM FLORA (THE PLANT KINGDOM)

Monocotyledonous plants of Malaysia
(Tumbuhan-tumbuhan monokot Malaysia)
Garden Monocot Plants of Malaysia
(Monokot Taman Malaysia)
Wild Monocot Plants of Malaysia
(Monokot Liar Malaysia)
Aquatic Monocot Plants of Malaysia
(Monokot Air Malaysia)
Fragrant Monocot Plants of Malaysia
(Monokot Harum Malaysia)
Monocot Spices of Malaysia
(Rempah Monokot Malaysia)
Dicotyledonous plants of Malaysia
(Tumbuhan-tumbuhan dikot Malaysia)
Garden Dicot Plants of Malaysia
(Dikot Taman Malaysia)
Wild Dicot Plants of Malaysia
(Dikot Liar Malaysia)
Aquatic Dicot Plants of Malaysia
(Dikot Air Malaysia)
Fragrant Dicot Plants of Malaysia
(Dikot Harum Malaysia)
Dicot Spices of Malaysia
(Rempah Dikot Malaysia)
Garden plants of Malaysia
(Tumbuhan taman Malaysia)
Garden Monocot Plants of Malaysia
(Monokot Taman Malaysia)
Garden Dicot Plants of Malaysia
(Dikot Taman Malaysia)
Wild plants of Malaysia
(Tumbuhan liar Malaysia)
Wild Monocot Plants of Malaysia
(Monokot Liar Malaysia)
Wild Dicot Plants of Malaysia
(Dikot Liar Malaysia)
Malaysian organic vegetables
(Sayuran organik Malaysia)
Chapter 01 - Introduction to organic vegetables
(Bab 1 - Pengenalan kepada sayur-sayuran organik)
Chapter 02 - List of organic vegetables
(Bab 2 - Senarai Sayur-sayuran organik)
Chapter 03 - List of fruits
(Bab 3 - Senarai buah-buahan)
Chapter 04 - Organic farming project plan
(Bab 04 - Rancangan projek kebun organik)
Chapter 05 - Vegetarian recipe and vegetable carving
(Bab 05 - Resipi sayuran dan ukiran sayuran)
Chapter 06 - Glossary of Organic and Farming Terms
(Bab 06 - Glosari Istilah Organik dan Pertanian)
Malaysian plants that are eaten raw
(Tumbuhan ulam Malaysia)
Introduction, Plants that are eaten raw
(Pengenalan, Tumbuhan ulam Malaysia)
Chapter 01 - The Shoots, Leaves and Stems
(Bab 01 - Pucuk, Daun dan Batang)
Chapter 05, Home gardening
(Bab 05, Berkebun di rumah)
Malaysian medicinal plants
(Tumbuhan ubatan Malaysia)
Chapter 01 - Fungi and Mushrooms
(Bab 01 - Kulat dan Cendawan)
Chapter 02 - Ferns
(Bab 02 - Paku-pakis)
Chapter 03 - The Value of Sprouts
(Bab 03 - Khasiat Tumbuhan Tunas)
Chapter 04 - Herbacious plants
(Bab 04 - Tumbuhan herba)
Chapter 05 - Shrubs
(Bab 05 - Tumbuhan rendik)
Chapter 06 - Trees
(Bab 06 - Tumbuhan pohon)
Chapter 08 - A Brief History of Medicinal Plants
(Bab 08 - Sejarah Ringkas Pokok Perubatan)
Gymnosperms of Malaysia
(Gymnosperma di Malaysia)
Ferns of Malaysia
(Paku-pakis di Malaysia)
Aquatic Ferns of Malaysia
(Paku=pakis Air Malaysia)
Fungi and Mushrooms of Malaysia
(Kulat dan Cendawan di Malaysia)




Go To References
(Pergi Ke Rujukan)

On-line References
Rujukan On-line
http://members.tripod.com/sumber_my/0-ruj.htm#rflora


Kindly visit my other Websites
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   Lawat (Visit)   SUMBER MALAYSIANA
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                              PLANTS OF THE MALAYSIAN REGION

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                              ANIMALS OF THE MALAYSIAN REGION

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                                  MUSIC OF THE MALAYSIAN REGION

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   Lawat (Visit)    PANNA MALAYSIANA  
                                  WISE SAYINGS OF THE MALAYSIAN REGION


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46400 Petaling Jaya




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